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onsdag 4 april 2018

Assosioituvista geeneistä



We have sucessfully employed a conserved extended haplotype-matching strategy and identified a novel additional celiac disease risk variant in the lncRNA HGC14. This lncRNA seems to regulate the expression of NOD1 in an allele-specific manner. Further functional studies are needed to clarify the role of HCG14 in the regulation of gene expression and to determine the molecular mechanisms by which the risk variant in HCG14 contributes to celiac disease pathogenesis.

tisdag 6 februari 2018


6.2.2018,10:23.Sana psalmista 86:15,16.
(A Maskil of Ethan the Ezrahite) Blessed are the people who know the festal shout, who walk , o Lord, in the light of thy countenance; who exult in thy name all the day, and extol thy righteousness.

torsdag 1 februari 2018

Kahvi ja keliakia

Autoimmun Rev. 2017 Jul;16(7):712-721. doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2017.05.007. Epub 2017 May 4.

Coffee and autoimmunity: More than a mere hot beverage!

Coffee is one of the world's most consumed beverage. In the last decades, coffee consumption has attracted a huge body of research due to its impact on health. Recent scientific evidences showed that coffee intake could be associated with decreased mortality from cardiovascular and neurological diseases, diabetes type II, as well as from endometrial and liver cancer, among others. In this review, on the basis of available data in the literature, we aimed to investigate the association between coffee intake and its influence on the immune system and the insurgence of the most relevant autoimmune diseases. While some studies reported conflicting results, general trends have been identified. Coffee consumption seems to increase the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). By contrast, coffee consumption may exert a protective role against multiple sclerosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and ulcerative colitis. Concerning other autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, primary biliary cholangitis and Crohn's disease, no significant association was found. In other studies, coffee consumption was shown to influence disease course and management options. Coffee intake led to a decrease in insulin sensitivity in T1DM, in methotrexate efficacy in RA, and in levothyroxine absorption in Hashimoto's disease. Further, coffee consumption was associated with cross reactivity with gliadin antibodies in celiac patients. Data on certain autoimmune diseases like systemic sclerosis, Sjögren's syndrome, and Behçet's disease, among others, are lacking in the existent literature. As such, further research is warranted.


Autoimmune diseases; Autoimmunity; Caffeine; Clinical nutrition; Coffee; Rheumatoid arthritis; Rheumatology

lördag 20 januari 2018

Kromosomi 18.n eräs geeni SMAD7

Immunology. 2017 Mar;150(3):356-363. doi: 10.1111/imm.12690. Epub 2016 Dec 12.

High Smad7 sustains inflammatory cytokine response in refractory coeliac disease.


Refractory coeliac disease (RCD) is a form of coeliac disease (CD) resistant to gluten-free diet and associated with elevated risk of complications. Many effector cytokines over-produced in the gut of patients with RCD are supposed to amplify the tissue-destructive immune response, but it remains unclear if the RCD-associated mucosal inflammation is sustained by defects in counter-regulatory mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to determine whether RCD-related inflammation is marked by high Smad7, an intracellular inhibitor of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 ) activity. Smad7 was evaluated in duodenal biopsy samples of patients with RCD, patients with active CD, patients with inactive CD and healthy controls by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. In the same samples, TGF-β1 and phosphorylated (p)-Smad2/3 were evaluated by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Pro-inflammatory cytokine expression was evaluated in RCD samples cultured with Smad7 sense or antisense oligonucleotide. Smad7 protein, but not RNA, expression was increased in RCD compared with active and inactive CD patients and healthy controls and this was associated with defective TGF-β1 signalling, as marked by diminished p-Smad2/3 expression. TGF-β1 protein content did not differ among groups. Knockdown of Smad7 in RCD biopsy samples reduced interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α expression. In conclusion, in RCD, high Smad7 associates with defective TGF-β1 signalling and sustains inflammatory cytokine production. These results indicate a novel mechanism by which the mucosal cytokine response is amplified in RCD and suggest that targeting Smad7 can be therapeutically useful in RCD.
gluten; inflammation; mucosal immune response; transforming growth factor-β
[Available on 2018-03-01]
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

söndag 7 januari 2018

Kaurapellon, kaurapellon pellon kaurapellon pientarella

kasvoi pieni kukka!

Despite excellent villous recovery in this study, persistent intraepithelial lymphocytosis was still common among celiac disease patients on a long-term strict gluten-free diet. Consumption of oats was associated with persistent duodenal lymphocytosis and this calls for further investigations. The prognosis of patients with persistent intraepithelial lymphocytosis seems to be good while adhering to a gluten-free diet for a mean of 11 years.

Vehnäpöly ja keuhkot

Am J Ind Med. 2003 Jul;44(1):75-82.

Wheat flour exposure results in recruitment of inflammatory cells in the lungs of healthy individuals.

Flour dust in bakeries is known to cause allergic as well as nonallergic respiratory symptoms. Fungal alpha-amylase is a commonly used baking additive that has been shown to have allergenic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate any effects on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of healthy individuals exposed to airborne wheat flour dust with or without fungal alpha-amylase added.
Fifteen subjects were exposed during 1 hr in an exposure chamber, ten individuals to wheat flour alone and five with alpha-amylase added. BAL was performed 2-6 weeks before and 1 day after the exposure. BAL cells were differentially counted and flowcytometric analysis of the expression of activation, adhesion, and subset markers on alveolar macrophages (AM) and T cells in BAL fluid and peripheral blood were carried out.
Exposure to wheat flour dust increased the total number of cells in BAL fluid from 75.4 (i.q. range 70.4-104.1) to 127.4 (92.1-187.4) cells x 10(6)/L, P < 0.01. There was a significant difference in the change of total BAL cell concentration between the study group exposed to wheat flour only (n = 10; increase with 91.9 x 10(6)/L) and the group exposed to wheat flour with the baking additive fungal alpha-amylase (n = 5; decrease with 5.4 x 10(6)/L). The exposure level of respirable dust was lower in the group that received alpha-amylase and the increase in BAL cell concentration showed a positive correlation with the concentration of respirable dust in the exposure chamber (r = 0.80, P < 0.001). The phenotypic analysis of AM indicated an influx of monocytic cells.
The results indicate that the concentration of respirable dust, but not alpha-amylase, is of importance for the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the peripheral airways in healthy individuals exposed to wheat flour dust.

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